Like other problem slugs, it is anthropogenic, and often found near human habitations. Like the pancake slug, it occurs widely in the Caribbean and the Pacific, where it feeds on numerous crop and ornamental plants. 2'. 1993) Exhibit Area. Photograph by John L. Capinera, University of Florida. IDENTIFYING LAND SNAILS Brian Eversham Version 2.1 February 2016 This key is an updated, expanded and illustrated version of one I first produced in July 1999 and have amended several previous training workshops. Because of the many errors in the literature involving snail and slug identifications, it can be misleading to rely entirely on a literature review to assess mollusc fauna. 2006). Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Internet address: http://www.fwgna.org. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Only recently, New Guinea flatworm, Platydemus manokwari De Beauchamp, 1963 (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Geoplanidae) was found in Florida. It is light brown or reddish brown with a pair of dark dorsolateral stripes extending over the mantle and body (Figures 21–23). Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. It is very difficult to distinguish from Florida leatherleaf slug. Molluscicidal baits for control of terrestrial gastropods. Often it is necessary to use a combination of external traits (morphology), internal anatomy (especially reproductive structures), and even molecular diagnoses (DNA analysis) for species-level determinations. It has also been introduced to many other countries, including Australia, New Zealand, some Pacific islands, and regions of South America. The eyestalks are bluish. Note that there are two pairs of tentacles, with the larger, upper pair bearing visual organs. The common name âhorntail snailâ is given to . Also know as the Roman snail or Burgundy snail, this common garden snail is widely distributed in Europe. The best known classes of molluscs are the Gastropoda (snails and slugs), Bivalvia (clams, oysters, mussels and scallops) and Cephalopoda (squids, cuttlefishes, octopuses and nautiluses). The state says a "gastropod enthusiast" collected unusual snails in the Coconut Grove area back in August. † Populations may not be currently present. 0000001257 00000 n Tree Snails of Florida, Drymaeus, Orthalicus, Liguus spp. Robinson DG. Garcia EN, Thomé JW, Castillejo J. The bait contains a toxicant, of course. This slug occurs widely in the eastern USA, but in Florida it is documented only from Marion County. Figure 1. Siphonal canal visible and obvious. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. . The eggs are deposited in small clusters (often six to 10, but up to 33) in soil or organic detritus. A native of South America, this species is now established in the states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Walls 2009), including northern and central Florida. Ridges on mantle forming fingerprint-like pattern that is not centered dorsally, rather being offset slightly to the right side of the animal - Family Agrolimacidae The Florida fighting conch is an herbivore (plant eater) and its common name comes from the observation of males fighting each other. Their eggs are not all produced in a single batch; instead, they are deposited periodically in soil or leaf litter. Eggs are not very resistant to desiccation, so they must remain in fairly humid environments, and absorb some water, if hatching is to be successful. 2004. In addition to the many potential invasive slugs originating in temperate climates such as Europe, the traditional source of invasive molluscs for the USA, Florida is also quite susceptible to invasion by slugs from warmer climates. Benson, A.J., and C.R. Marsh slug, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774), brownish morph. Ideally, a non-toxic repellent or feeding deterrent would be available to protect vegetation, without introducing more toxicants into the environment. 2002. Catalog of introduced molluscs of eastern North America (north of Mexico). Getz LL. Pomacea bridgesi (Reeve) in Florida. Biology and control of the leatherleaf slug. White-McLean J, Capinera JL. Egg clutches are white in color. Instead, they became a prolific and very destructive pest. Internal anatomy. Primarily due to international trade, nonindigenous slugs continue to be introduced to North America, so other species are likely to establish populations in Florida. Bailey SER. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida, 94 pp. The slug also burrows in soft soil and can enter the root-balls of plants through drainage holes at the base of the containers. (ed.) Maximum size 1.5 inches. Finally, although not labeled for management of molluscs, incidental benefits of copper hydroxide fungicide are well documented. This is the smallest of the common slugs in Florida, weighing only as little as 0.2 g at maturity, but up to 0.8 g. It is brownish or grayish, without spots or stripes, and bears only indistinct markings, often including minute white flecks (Figures 18, 19). This slug can grow to weigh 8 g, though it becomes sexually mature and begins egg production when it is about 3 g. This species feeds on fungi. 1). It is globose in shape, body whorls are wide, spire is depressed, and the aperature is narrowly oval (Burch 1982). 2014. Figure 2. Moisture is also an important factor governing slug distribution and activity. This is a very small slug, less than 1 cm long. Figure 19. This species is the largest freshwater gastropod native to North America (Burch 1982). On the other hand, following exposure to Snail and Slug Away™, which contains cinnamon oil as the active ingredient, considerable reduction of plant feeding was noted. Euglandina rosea is native to the southeastern USA, and is quite common in woodlands and gardens in Florida. Slug control and management have been reviewed by many authors (e.g., Henderson and Triebskorn 2002, Bailey 2002). 1'. Following is a discussion of the situation in Florida, including problems with slug identification and taxonomy as well as the behavior, ecology, and management of slugs. When closed, the pore can be difficult to locate. Florida Crown Conch. Other Resources: Pomacea paludosa (The apple snail website) Slugs can be quite long-lived, surviving for a year or more. Capinera JL, Guedes Rodgrigues C. 2015. Alien invasions: the effects of the global economy on non-marine gastropod introductions into the United States. Euglandina rosea prefers snails to slugs, but will attack and consume small slugs in the absence of snail prey. Clearly, external morphology alone is not always a reliable way to identify slugs, especially to the species level. 1. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made. Flower and foliage plants suffer the most damage in Florida, but this slug attacks many different plants. Barker GM (ed.) Sides are smooth and mottled yellow, orange, and brown, often circled with lines composed of dashes. The related but larger Megapallifera mutabilis (Hubricht, 1951), also known as the changeable mantleslug, is known from counties in Alabama adjacent to Florida and may occur in the Panhandle region of Florida but so far is unreported there. Most slugs are hermaphroditic, possessing both male and female sex organs. Thus, at least in some species, a single individual can inseminate another slug, can be inseminated by another, and can even inseminate itself! Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. The caudal horn is found in only one other species in Florida, Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude) (Helicarionidae), known as the jumping snail. And they reproduce quickly. The genital pore is located adjacent to the foot (Figure 8), normally less than 1/4 hyponotal width (the hyponotum is the portion of the mantle that wraps beneath the slug body and is adjacent to the foot) from the foot. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. They also have regulatory significance, interfering with movement of potted plants, because locations lacking slugs are not eager to be inoculated with these potentially damaging species. Many feed on fungi, decomposing vegetation, and soil as well as living plant tissue. Terrestrial Slugs: Biology, Ecology and Control. 2009. 558 pp. It has a very wide host range, including many vegetables and ornamental plants. Figure 11. Drawing on left (a) illustrates genital pore not adjacent to foot, near center of hyponotum; drawing in center (b) shows genital pore adjacent to foot, at the edge of the hyponotum; and drawing on right (c) shows tip of foot being lifted to expose anal slit. Never pick up a live cone snail, no matter the species. It has been relocated to other parts of the world, including Hawaii, India and many islands in the Pacific region, in an attempt to control invasive snails such as giant African land snail, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821). Early references refer to this species either as Angustipes ameghini (Gambetta, 1923) or Veronicella ameghini Gambetta, 1923. It also is known from several of the islands in the Caribbean region and from Costa Rica. One species occurs naturally in Florida, and three others have been introduced. The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. Several slugs found in Florida have yet another mantle arrangement, wherein the entire dorsal surface is covered with the mantle. 3(1'). Notes on the ecology of slugs: Henderson I, Triebskorn R. 2002. Their nocturnal habits and ability to burrow into the soil make them difficult to detect. Some may transmit plant disease-causing organisms such as viruses and fungi, or serve as intermediate hosts of animal parasites such as tapeworms and lung worms (Godan 1983). Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Common Fresh Water Pond Snails (Europe or US Native Species) A bright red ramshorn snail. Maximum size 1 inch. According to the University of Florida, there are two common garden snails in the state â the garden Zachrysia and the Banded Caracol. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Formerly found only in southern and central Florida, it has since been spread to northernmost Florida, and also is found in Louisiana, Texas, and northeastern Mexico, suggesting either that the species is more widespread than previous records indicated or that it is being relocated via commerce. Faberi AJ, López AN, Manetti PL, Clemente NL, Álvarez Castillo HA. Dorsal view of the banded slug, Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac, 1822). Normally, it is the most commonly encountered veronicellid in Florida. For example, slugs are not as dependent on calcium-rich environments as are shell-bearing snails, but as a result of lacking a protective shell they display behaviors that conserve moisture such as nocturnal activity and dwelling mostly in sheltered environments. Predatory snails such as the rosy wolf snail, Euglandina rosea (Férussac, 1821), will attack slugs, and may account, in part, for the relatively low slug densities in Florida. Other species (right) deposit their eggs in a loose cluster, or a small number of eggs per cluster. Though only 1 cm long at rest, the marsh slug can become more elongate (up to 3 cm) when extended. Some birds, especially ducks, feed on slugs. . Although formerly a bit confused, the scientific name and identity of Deroceras laeve have been stable for many years. A slug that commonly causes damage in Florida is marsh slug, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774). Lateral view of the anterior area of the Carolina mantleslug, Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc, 1802), with the mantle showing light pigmentation at the site (center) of the breathing pore. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Eggs are white or translucent (though sometimes taking on a yellowish or orange-yellow tint later in egg development) and often nearly spherical. It can attain a length of 5 cm when extended, but is not a large slug, attaining a weight of about 1.2 g at maturity. Dundee, D. S. 1974. Molluscs as Crop Pests. Low Price Guarantee. Slugs at top (a,b) have the mantle located only anteriorly. Slugs are snails without a visible shell (some have an internal shell and a few have a greatly reduced external shell). Thompson, F.G. 1984. When chemical control is needed, commercial slug and snail baits are usually used by scattering bait around vegetation that is to be protected. Ridges on mantle forming fingerprint-like pattern that is centered dorsally (Figures 22, 23) - Family Limacidae, the keelback slugs. 4 pp. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 80: 399-406. A parasite called rat lungworm, which is spread by rats and snails and which can get into people's brains, has infected 12 Americans in recent years, CDC says. While there is also an apple snail native to Florida, the non-native species tends to be more common. Chemical control of terrestrial gastropods. Euglandina rosea, a common predator of snails and slugs in Florida. The spots sometimes coalesce to form blotches, and may also form an interrupted irregular line laterally on the mantle. 644 pp. Figure 17. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Pomacea paludosa are found here. Although outbreaks of this rodent-associated disease occur in Central America, it occurs infrequently in the United States. will not do your child's homework, Fanmail: WTB? ; larger eggs are Philomycus sp. Heavily mulched planting beds provide excellent harborage for this slug, including shelter during the daylight hours. However, within a slug family there can be considerable uncertainty about correct identifications and speciation. This small species apparently is indigenous, or at least is widespread, in North America. . Indeed, most of the invaders that have established here are warm-weather or tropical species. Florida Keys tree snail (Orthalicus reses) has axially (vertically) oriented brown streaks. Biology, Nutritional Ecology, and Natural Enemies of the Slug, Rueda A, Caballero R, Kaminsky R, Andrews KL. Some slugs deposit fecal-like material with their eggs, but the reason for this behavior is unknown. . In addition to threatening some native molluscs, it also is a host of rat lungworm. Poisoned slugs typically display loss of coordination and paralysis, and increased mucus secretion. The University of Florida (UF), together with Florida A&M University (FAMU), administers the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. Named subspecies exist, and it may be comprised of a species complex. Gainesville, Florida. Ampullariids havâ¦ The four exotic, nonindigenous Pomacea apple snail species are the island apple snail, channeled apple snail, spike-topped apple snail, and the titan apple snail. Figure 6. 2007. Collecting Florida applesnails (Pomacea paludosa) from wetland habitats using funnel traps. 428 pp. They often die from desiccation following paralysis, but detoxification of the poison by the slug is sometimes accomplished, so they may recover and survive (Henderson and Triebskorn 2002). Typically, it is tan with brown or black spots and blotches. 2002. Alien non-marine snails and slugs of priority quarantine importance in the United States: a preliminary risk assessment. because of the pointed, fleshy protrusion (caudal horn) at the tip of its tail (Fig. Another significant threat is Veronicella cubensis (L. Pfeiffer, 1840), known as the Cuban slug. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. The freshwater gastropods of North America. Figure 20. Euglandina rosea, a common predator of snails and slugs in Florida. South A. Two products have recently become available, both based on essential oils extracted from plants. Natural enemies are relatively few. Medium- to large-sized tropical freshwater snails. Florida is also home to a diverse variety of animal life, and while some species are native to the land, others are a dangerous threat to Floridaâ s delicately balanced ecosystem. . The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. The name of this species has changed repeatedly (e.g., Limax valentianus [Férrusac, 1823], Limax poirieri [Mabille, 1883]), and most North American records for this species refer to it as Lehmannia marginata (Hoffman, 1928). On the Brink. Figure 9. Albino form of the Carolina mantleslug, Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc, 1802). We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data. Other veronicellids have been found in Florida, or may soon become established. Body rather flattened in cross-section, and tapering laterally (toward the sides); breathing pore (pneumostome) not visible (Figures 15–18); foot considerably narrower than width of body (Figures 8, 9) - Family Veronicellidae, the leatherleaf slugs. Warning Story They are 1–3 mm long, and vary from round to oval in shape. Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. Figure 3. Florida leatherleaf, Leidyula floridana (Leidy 1851) slugs, with their bodies contracted, showing some of the color variation found in this slug. Molluscs as Crop Pests. However, development of chemicals and research on biological control (i.e., potential predators and parasites) have been done mostly outside of the USA, and options for management are more limited than with insects. Figure 16. Crop Protection 83: 76-82. Some effects of copper-based fungicides on plant-feeding terrestrial molluscs: A role for repellents in mollusc management. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Nautilus 79(3):105. Due to its small size and preferred habitat (deciduous woodlands) it may well be more broadly distributed, but overlooked. Leidyula floridana has also been known as Vaginulus floridanus (Tate, 1870) and Veronicella floridana (Leidy, 1851). 1959. Like the more common forms, it is a large slug, attaining up to 8 g in weight and 10 cm in length. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Native to East Africa, the giant snails were first imported to this country as pets and educational props in 1966. Because of this black velvety appearance, it is unlikely to be confused with any other slug found in Florida. These include: Other species of slugs that have not been intercepted in Florida, but which threaten include; For the most part, our native fauna remain in natural, undisturbed habitats where they function mostly as decomposers, rarely achieving pest status. The slug life form (with a reduced or invisible shell) has evolved a number of times in different snail families, but this shell-free body form has imparted similar behavior and physiology in all species of slugs. The Carolina mantleslug is a native species, found from Maine to Florida, and west to Iowa and Texas. The freshwater snails of Florida: a manual for identification. Sterkiana 55:1-37. The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. Figure 22. One of the priority objectives of the Species Action Plan for the Florida Tree Snail (FWC 2013) is to map A common barn owl, Tyto alba javanica, at Penang Bird Park. Smith said the snails lay an average of about 20 to 30 eggs at a time, and can lay eggs up to 30 times a year. This attribute likely explains the presence of marsh slug in Florida but the absence of gray field slug. Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The family contains many genera and numerous species in South America, Central America, Mexico, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Despite the name 'keelback' being applied to this family, this species shows little or no evidence of a keel (dorsal ridge on the tail). Among the most interesting of the molluscs are the snails. Cuban brown snail or garden zachrysia, Zachrysia provisoria(L. Pfeiffer, 1858) (Family Pleurodontidae [Camaenidae]) Deliberately introduced to the Miami area from Cuba in the early 1900s, it now is the most abundant of the large terrestrial snailsin south Florida but can be found as far north as Tampa and Orlando. 2004. Mantle consisting of an elevated saddle-like structure that is apparent when the body is extended, and located only in the anterior region of the body (Figures 19–23); breathing pore (pneumostome) present (although it may be closed) posteriorly (away from the head) on right margin of mantle (Figure 7) . This slug is 5–12 cm long, and variable in color but usually brown with dark but thin dorsolateral stripes along it back, and a thin light-colored stripe dorsally. Whorls covered with beaded ornamentation and fine threading. The freshwater snails of Florida: a manual for identification. The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. This species reportedly eats both living and decayed leaves, although it is not considered to be a pest in Florida because it is not abundant. Foliar injury to a Madagascar periwinkle (vinca) plant (left) caused by Deroceras laeve slugs and, for comparison, an undamaged plant of the same age growing nearby (right). TAMPA, Fla. - A horntail snail, an invasive pest common in India, has been found in Miami-Dade County, spurring agriculture officials to start a program to prevent the possible spread of the species, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services said Thursday. Ventral surface of veronicellid showing narrow foot. 1989. Slugs produce mucus (slime), which allows them to adhere to the substrate and provides some protection against abrasion, but some mucus also has chemical properties that function in defense against predation (South 1992). 1) Ramshorn Pond Snail (Planorbidae) Named because their shell is shaped much like a ramâs horn, the ramshorn snail breaths air via a lung and through their skin. (ed.) Common Name: Florida Cone. Elsewhere, pancake slug is found throughout the Caribbean, and some islands in the Pacific, including Hawaii. They measure 2.0–2.5 mm in length and are oval in shape. It has been used to provide partial control of giant African snail, but it has been quite disruptive to native snail populations, so its use is discouraged outside its natural range (Barker 2004). This species normally is found in woodlands, and does not frequent disturbed habitats like the veronicellid slugs. 2014), so perhaps it will become commercially available here. 2001. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. On the other hand, strategic placement of such shelter can be used to sample or even reduce slug populations if the slugs are removed and destroyed periodically. Slug and snail populations are highest in warm, moist, humid climates. Moles and shrews also will feed on slugs. Slugs often develop faster and commence reproduction sooner under warm conditions, but attain a larger size and ultimately produce the same number or more eggs at cooler conditions. Florida applesnails have separate sexes, with females laying eggs above the waterline on emergent vegetation (Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018). A comprehensive review of the natural enemies of terrestrial slugs can be found in Barker (2004). The pancake slug is large, often 5–12 cm in length, and usually very pale, ranging from whitish to tan or speckled with brown spots. Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditida) a slug-parasitic nematode, is used in Europe to control slugs, has not been allowed in the USA because of concern about introducing a non-native organism. Although this type of damage is evident, it is not necessarily diagnostic of slugs, because snails, beetles, grasshoppers, and caterpillars often inflict the same type of injury. Florida Chalksnail (Miami-Dade Co., FL) Succinea floridana Pilsbry, 1905 ? Molluscs are a very diverse group, with at least 85,000 species named, and estimates of up to 200,000 species occurring worldwide. Theme. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. Slugs also are a threat to animals and people because they serve as intermediate hosts of the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, also known as rat lungworm, which causes a disease called human abdominal angiostrongyliasis (Rueda et al. The management tools for slugs are much the same as used in the integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for other invertebrate pests such as insects. The snail was found by a gastropod enthusiast in Miami, who sent it to the University of Florida, which identified it. Adults of this species are uniformly black in color dorsally, and velvety in appearance (Figure 15), with the underside paler in color. The banded tree snail (Orthalicus floridensis) has three spiral chestnut bands that can resemble Liguus faciatus, but has a chestnut-colored apex and columella. A mid-century modern house in a Phoenix subdivision. In Florida, it is found from the Keys to Pensacola, and feeds on a great number of plants in cultivated areas as well as in swamps, woodlands, and around human habitations. However, the color pattern can be quite variable. Diagram of extended (above) and contracted (below) slugs, with key morphological features labeled. Unlike some invertebrates such as insects, they can continue to grow after they reach reproductive maturity and commence egg production. M. indica. Common Name: Florida cerith. Vaginulidae in Central America, with emphasis on the bean slug. Traditionally, the toxicant in such baits is metaldehyde, or sometimes metaldehyde plus a carbamate toxicant, or occasionally a carbamate toxicant alone. For example, veronicellid slugs are rather flattened, and have a narrow foot, and so they are fairly distinct from other slugs. Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. The verocellid slugs of Florida (Gastropoda: Veronicellidae) Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Entomology Circular 261. The department then gathered about 30 of the snails â¦ The breathing pore (pneumostome) is located in a lightly pigmented anterior right area of mantle (Figures 12, 13). Pages 1-31 in Baker, GM. Pages 33-54 in Barker GM. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 78: 41-50. Clench, W.J. Note that in this case, although plant tissue has been consumed, holes are largely absent, making it more difficult to detect slug feeding. Florida's generally sandy soil is not conducive to slugs, but they occur where organic matter is abundant, and of course the generally humid conditions favor slug survival. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension outreach is a partnership between state, federal, and county governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the public. Thus, their adult size is quite variable. Dense vegetation, deep mulch, and frequent irrigation favor slugs. Lateral view of slug showing the breathing pore (pneumostome) open. The shell characters given above for separating the families apply only to Florida species. This species is tropical and amphibious, having both lungs and gills, making it easy to survive dry periods and seasons, where it burrows under the mud (Burch, 1982; Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018). Outside of it's native range, this species has been found in ponds on gulf courses, leading to the thought that the snails were introduced as hitchikers on aquatic plants (Dillon, R. T., Jr. and colleagues 2018), although oher applesnail species are known to be introduced from the aquairum trade (Clench, 1966). However, this slug can be somewhat variable in appearance, and sometimes is fairly pale or mostly dark. Deisler JE, Stange LA. Mantle covering all of the back (dorsum) of the animal, or nearly so, or saddle-like mantle structure not apparent in anterior region when body is extended (Figures 15–18); breathing pore (pneumostome) not visible or located anteriorly (toward the head) on right margin of mantle (although it may be closed) (Figure 7) . Figure 21. The variation in appearance among individual slugs makes it very difficult to identify some species with great certainty, especially when working with individual specimens. Their mouth contains a rasping structure called a radula, which bears tooth-like features, but these are internal and not generally visible.
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