BELLIGERENTS: Guinea-Bissau Government (of President Joao Bernardo Vieira) with. As the army executed 157 people and publicly raped over a hundred women, the newly elected Condé proclaimed reforms to regulate the army. Indeed, the lack of prospects and low literacy rates have led to mass emigration of Guinea’s extremely young population, posing further constraints on the development of the country. With a fiercely contested election of their own next week, will Americans find themselves in uncharted territory? ENDED: November 2, 1998 --Peace accord signed. Much of what I'd read about Bougainville before arriving painted a picture of a troubled and unstable country. The building where Jackson died quickly became a hallowed place. The case of Guinea should be of concern to everyone. The main indigenous revolutionary insurgent movement, the Marxist African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde or PAIGC was well-trained, well-led, and equipped and received substantial support from safe havens in neighbouring countries like Senegal and Guinea-Conakry. The actual political parties have in most cases been created for their own protection by former ministers under the military dictatorship of Lansana Conté. Here’s what you need to know. Ansumane Mane, the country’s former Chief of Staff who had been suspended by President Vieira for allegedly arming a separatist movement, led a military rebellion against the government, triggering the war. On Oct. 23, it issued a news release calling on Western powers to sanction the Guinean government, denounce post-election violence and protect civil society. Most of the protesters in Guinea seem to be backers of Condé’s opponent, Cellou Dalein Diallo. What have outside observers said about Guinea’s election? A large part of the population, including some the ethnic group of the Malinké who used to support him, do not trust Condé anymore. The command structure set up by the BRA seldom had any real control over the various groups throughout the island that claimed to be part of the BRA. Some Americans may be wringing their hands about the possibility President Trump might refuse to leave office if he loses the election. Tibor Nagy, assistant secretary for the U.S. State Department’s Bureau of African Affairs, tweeted Oct. 23, “The U.S. condemns the violence in Guinea & calls on all parties to end it immediately.” Nagy’s tweet echoed statements from Amnesty International and the United Nations. The Cold War comes to Africa, as Guinea gains its independence The former French colony of Guinea declares its independence on October 2, 1958, with Sekou Toure … But, this time it is intent to resist and fight Condé’s aspiration to a third term. The turmoil in Guinea thus revolves around electoral transparency, and not just Condé’s third term. How do you view the elections of October 18, 2020? This statement contradicted monitors from the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which declared the election free and fair. Since Guinea is one of the most backward countries in terms of telecommunications, only the young people in the main cities have access to the internet and social networks. I know that over the last year, the Guinean army has used its weapons against the Fulani population, which is notably also the community of the political opponent Cellou Dalein Diallo. Emily Beaulieu finds that electoral protests place greater pressure on incumbents to implement democratic reforms when those protests receive international attention, even if that attention falls short of outright support. This will surely lead to a violent reaction from the opponents. The Second Liberian Civil War began in 1999 when a rebel group backed by the government of neighbouring Guinea, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy, emerged in northern Liberia. The Guinea-Bissau Civil War, fought from 07 June 1998 to 10 May 1999, was triggered by Brigadier-General Ansumane Mané's coup d'état attempt against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira. DATES OF CONFLICT: BEGAN: June 7 1998--Army rebellion begins. What is the role of law enforcement authorities in this regard? Why do some elections in Africa turn violent? The opposition is, however, composed of several parties that are led by former ministers among whom there are strong rivalries. In the countryside, most information is still distributed orally. Will Guinea slide into chaos? The jungles of Guinea and the proximity of the PAIGC's allies near the border proved to be of significant advantage in providing tactical superiority during cross-borde… These parties are therefore based on their families, on their communities and villages, and keeping up a very strong communitarian ideology. Unfortunately, the signs are ominous for Guinea, as people’s frustrations seem to have reached explosive potential. The country is in disastrous conditions in terms of infrastructure; roads and electricity are especially lacking. Cellou Dalein, leader of the opposition Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea (UDFG), believes he can beat Condé. Tournons la Page dismissed the stamp of approval from election observers, tweeting, “The AU and ECOWAS said they are satisfied with the electoral process, while forgetting that an election is not defined solely by the calm that surrounds the actual voting. To what extent do the political parties adopt ethnicity as a political tool? Francis Ona responded by unilaterally declaring independence. Guinea is an unincorporated community in Caroline County, Virginia, United States.Guinea is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) northwest of Bowling Green.The modern spelling of the name has been altered from the earlier "Guiney" or "Guiney's", so called after an old Caroline County family, the Guineys (also spelled Guinney, Gwinny, or Ginny in various records). Lisa Mueller is an assistant professor of political science at Macalester College and the author of “Political Protest in Contemporary Africa” (Cambridge University Press, 2018). The whole opposition bloc had initially agreed to fight to remove Condé from power at the end of his term. President Mahamadou Issoufou of Niger, once a close friend of Condé, publicly admonished the Guinean president for defying term limits. Do you believe the scale of violence will increase? ). Papua New Guinea Civil War Created by Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prinz von Preußen State: Public AI: Prod 2.0 with randomness Went public on 11/10/2020 Number of attempts: 82 Number of wins: 56 Number of likes: 10 Record holder: PallandoBlue in 10 turns on 11/10/2020 The representatives of these African bodies neglect weaknesses in voter registration, repression of the opposition and civil society, and defiance on the part of certain political and social actors toward the Independent Electoral Commission …”. The country accused France of establishing camps and arms caches along Guinea’s borders with Senegal and Côte d’Ivoire. It’s rare that African incumbents come up short in their efforts to bend democratic rules and instead bend to popular resistance. I can only imagine what happens if such an ethnic conflict reaches beyond national borders! Before Condé came to power in 2009, Guinea had experienced the massacre of September 28 at the Conakry Stadium. Guinea blames rebel attacks on neighbouring countries. A destabilization of Guinea would certainly imply a destabilization of the whole region. In April of 1960, Guinea exposed the French plan to topple Sékou Touré. The Guinea-Bissau Civil War was fought from 7 June 1998 to 10 May 1999 and was triggered by an attempted coup d'état against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira led by Brigadier-General Ansumane Mané. Many Guineans see the current president as a liar. In its composition, the oppositional block, the FNDC (Front National pour la Défense de la Constitution), has succeeded in breaking with regionalism and in bringing together people without taking ethnic issues into account. The most important news stories of the day, curated by Post editors and delivered every morning. He has also recently tweeted in support of other African protests, including the #EndSARS movement in Nigeria. The capital … In my opinion, the Europeans could prevent our country from sliding into a civil war through diplomatic and economic pressure. With the support of 1,300 Senegalese and 400 Guinean soldiers, troops loyal to the go… This is their main problem, making them unable to overcome personal interests. From the Parking Lot: Sign about Guinea Station in 1864 Vieira dismissed the suspended Mané and appointed General Humberto Gomes to replace him on 6 June 1998. This is notably the case of the Malinké and the Peul, who can be found in Guinea and all other neighboring countries. Our country is fortunate to be naturally endowed with mining, agricultural, and human resources that would be capable of ensuring prosperity to our population. I am convinced that Condé cannot maintain power without using violence. In my opinion, an inter-ethnic conflict in Guinea means that all other Peul and Malinké communities of Central Africa would be concerned as well. He is called "Papa Promise" because he has never kept his promises and commitments. The Guinea-Bissau Civil War was triggered by an attempted coup d'état against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira led by Brigadier-General Ansumane Mané in June 1998. From your perspective, how will the opposition react? As these preconditions are considered to make a country prone to civil wars and instability, the question about the future of the country is more relevant than ever. In your opinion, are there any political parties trying to break with this ethnic logic and adopting a more inclusive notion of citizenship? Issoufou, on his part, has vowed not to contest his country’s December election, having served his maximum of two terms. While that scenario would be unprecedented in the United States, Africa has some experience with presidents who refuse to cede power — like the current election standoff in Guinea. What makes electoral protests more likely to result in pro-democratic outcomes, like the exit of an autocrat, rather than entrenched dictatorship? We need a consensual constitution not tailored for one person or community, but based on human rights. Only this way we can restart our country on all levels: economic, industrial, and social. The war in Guinea has been termed "Portugal's Vietnam". War in Guinea could also spread across the … West Papua is the western half of the island of New Guinea, formerly known as … Independence was granted by the United States in … The next year, government troops massacred and raped citizens who were demanding an end to military rule. If Condé pushes us into chaos and violence, there will inevitably be a conflict between the Malinké and the Peul people in all neighboring countries. Up until now, Guinea has remarkably avoided the scale of civil war and ethnic strife that has in the past beleaguered its neighbors Côte d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, Liberia and Mali. Contested elections in Africa at times erupt into bloodshed. The small West African country of Guinea succumbs to chaos: post-electoral violence has erupted after President Alpha Condé’s reelection on October 18, 2020. Mr. Barry, how do you see the current situation in Guinea and is it different to observe it from Germany? I, therefore, fear that the use of force will be much more accentuated than in March when five churches were set on fire and more than 120 people were killed. If Guinea is destabilized, it will push the youth and the poor to embark on the path of exile. New generations should have a chance to serve their country! How is Alpha Condé seen by the Guinean opposition today? Sands Nowhere in the modern world has an armed liberation struggle persisted for so long - nearly 30 years - and with such secrecy, as the West Papuan war of resistance against the military government of Indonesia. If he upholds that promise, he will be only the second executive in Niger to peacefully transfer power to a successor. For example, during demonstrations in Conakry, the army fired bullets at protestors—even at children—killing and chasing them through neighborhoods. These elections will lead us to chaos because they lack any consensus. In Guinea's neighboring countries, notably Mali and Ivory Coast, similar political crises are taking place. When the two met at a summit in October, Condé refused to shake Issoufou’s hand. This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. What Guinea lacks is good governance and the rule of law. The interview was conducted in French and translated to English by Ghirardello. In addition to Condé’s rising authoritarianism, Guinea remains caught in the vicious cycle of bad governance and poverty despite its mineral wealth, making it “a trapped country”. My most fervent wish is that the international community, and in particular the Europeans, do not shut their eyes to what is happening in Guinea right now. Following a series of border attacks from rebels, the West African republic of Guinea may now be threatened with the kind of civil war faced by … In 2008, a junta seized power after the death of longtime dictator Lansana Conté. If Guinea achieves strong rule of law, it could ensure adequate development of the country with jobs and prospects for our children who would no longer need to immigrate to Europe. Seeing it from Germany gives me a broader perspective because I have access to more information coming from different sources and regions. Diallo named himself the rightful winner of last week’s election, claiming to have won 53 percent of the vote, not the 33 percent reported by the national electoral commission. Elections in Africa offer a reminder that a smooth and democratic result is nothing to take for granted. After their morning council, Grant and Meade had ridden past the Fifth Corps columns and were now approaching Guinea Station, Cavalry clashed at Guinea Station on the morning of May 21, 1864, leading to the first casualty of the fight for the North Anna River. 1999 — Guinea-Bissau, to end the Guinea-Bissau Civil War; In 2001, ECOWAS planned to deploy 1,700 men along the Guinea–Liberia border to stop guerrilla infiltration by fighters opposed to the new post-1998 election government. 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